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Heritrix is an open-source web crawler, allowing users to target websites they wish to include in a collection and to harvest an instance of each site.
License:GNU Lesser General Public License 2.1
Platforms:Written in Java. Must have Java Runtime Environment (JRE, http://www.java.com/en/download/index.jsp) and at least Java version 5.0 installed. Default heap size is 256MB RAM.
Wikidata ID:Q3097891
Function:Web Capture
Content type:Web
Appears in COW:Quality Assurance: Iterative Seed Issue Decision Tree, Web Archiving Quality Assurance Lifecycle

Mailing List(s)

See here for more information.

Issues Feed

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Heritrix is an open-source web crawler, allowing users to target websites they wish to include in a collection and to harvest an instance of each site. The software is most often used as a powerful back-end tool incorporated into a web archiving workflow.


Internet Archive

Licensing and cost[edit]

Apache License, Version 2.0 – free. Some individual source code files are subject to or offered under other licenses.

Development activity[edit]

Version 3.1.1 was released in May 2012. Heritrix powers the Internet Archive, and so receives ongoing support.

Platform and interoperability[edit]

As a Java application, Heritrix is theoretically platform agnostic; however, only Linux is supported.  The software requires Java Runtime Environment 1.6 or higher, and at least 256MB of available RAM.

Functional notes[edit]

Web crawls are carried out by configuring a ‘job,’ which itself is an instance of a crawl template called a ‘profile.’ Although they contain the same configurations, these two entities have different functions; profiles record the set of configurations and act as a starting point for shaping a new job, but only the job itself can excecute a crawl. The software will crawl FTP sites in addition to HTTP. Users can examine the results of a crawl by opening its log files, which include information about crawl problems and errors, each URI that was collected, and statistics about the job as a whole. Users can also create reports showing a summary of the crawl’s activity. Heritrix stores the web resources it crawls in an Arc file. The software includes a command-line tool called arcreader which can be used to extract the contents.

Documentation and user support[edit]

The User Guide for versions 3.0 and 3.1 is in the form of a wiki, which at time of writing is not structured in any obvious narrative order; while detailed, it is very difficult to navigate.  The User Manual for version 2.0 is structured and can be used as a reference for navigation.  Extensive documentation is available, including release notes, Javadoc API documentation, and FAQs linking within the wiki. Heritrix’s website links to two active mailing lists: a yahoo discussion group and a sourceforge list distributing source code commits. The project also uses a public JIRA for bug, feature, and issue tracking.


Heritrix is installed via a command line interface, but once installed the user can launch a web-based interface for configuration. Setting up a crawl requires a significant number of adjustments.

Expertise required[edit]

Installation requires solid knowledge of Linux and command line interfaces. As with any web archiving software, deep understanding of the project’s scope and collections policy is essential in order to set up appropriate targets.

Standards compliance[edit]

Heritrix does not offer metadata support. The software is designed to respect robots.txt exclusion directives and META robots tags.

Influence and take-up[edit]

Heritrix is extremely influential; as of March 2012, the SourceForge site reports nearly 240,000 downloads. Users include the Internet Archive, the British Library, the United States Library of Congress, and the French National Library. The software powers NetarchiveSuite and the Web Curator Tool.

User Experiences[edit]

Development Activity[edit]

All development activity is visible on GitHub: http://github.com/internetarchive/heritrix3/commits

Release Feed[edit]

Below the last 3 release feeds:

2022-07-28 08:21:57
[tag:github.com,2008:Repository/2623406/3.4.0-20220727 2022-07-27 Interim Release]
by anjackson
2021-09-30 12:56:11
[tag:github.com,2008:Repository/2623406/3.4.0-20210923 2021-09-23 Interim Release]
by anjackson
2021-08-03 09:44:29
[tag:github.com,2008:Repository/2623406/3.4.0-20210803 2021-08-03 Interim Release]
by anjackson

Activity Feed[edit]

Below the last 5 commits:

2023-03-10 13:12:30
[tag:github.com,2008:Grit::Commit/8563f491a5b355c39a89f51b17c76aaa84752a8a Merge pull request #536 from claire9910/oscs_fix_cd5c2voau51t5k2gfi30]
by anjackson https://github.com/anjackson
2023-03-10 13:05:55
[tag:github.com,2008:Grit::Commit/a3952be18165ab9f28b68b9a37b69089f7363d4b Merge pull request #552 from internetarchive/revert-375-fix-last-modi…]
by anjackson https://github.com/anjackson
2023-03-10 13:05:39
[tag:github.com,2008:Grit::Commit/d073b43b485dd58e14fe96a8cbc372477f2dfc53 Revert "Use seconds from the FetchCompletedTime for LastModified time"]
by anjackson https://github.com/anjackson
2023-03-10 12:57:53
[tag:github.com,2008:Grit::Commit/d948364105bfc30532e10cdabd6a44bc747c8448 Merge pull request #549 from KBNLresearch/master]
by anjackson https://github.com/anjackson
2023-03-10 11:21:32
[tag:github.com,2008:Grit::Commit/2d0afcdbd7fbc00ba07e773f9c10b0c7273ab50e Merge pull request #375 from phanidv/fix-last-modified-millis]
by anjackson https://github.com/anjackson